Are Abstractors to Blame for Offshoring?

by Robert Franco | 2008/11/26 | Source of Title, Used with Permission

A couple of recent (Source of Title) posts regarding offshoring have stirred up some controversy.  Sunil Ojha started a blog defending the practice of searching titles from India.  In Misunderstanding and Clearification (sic) of Same and Resolved Your Real Issue, OJha explains why offshoring makes good business sense and how it can be done effectively.  Whether you agree or disagree, the real question is why is anybody offshoring to begin with?  There is no doubt that offshoring cuts costs and that is attractive to companies looking for any advantage in today’s business environment.  But, abstracting was always a localized practice that required a particular knowledge of state and local real property laws to produce a reliable product.  Why would anyone trade quality for savings?  More importantly, have they? 

Source of Title Blog ::

Let’s start with a basic premise that it is possible to reliably search an online title plant.  I am the first to say that I have some doubts about online records, but it is possible.  The real problem that I have with online records is that not all of the information we search is available electronically; thus, the so called “thin-title” plants are incomplete.  However, title plants are the norm in some parts of the country, and even required in some places.  If they are complete, there should be no problem using them for abstracting purposes.

So the real difference between searching a title plant from India and searching a title plant locally, is the skill and knowledge of the abstractor.  As I have stated many times, there are vast differences between the states that have a huge impact on the status of title.  I believe that I have a strong understanding of the real property laws in Ohio, but I would never even consider tyring to do a search in another state. 

Some of the biggest differences between the states could be dower, community property laws, state Medicaid recovery laws, recording statutes, etc.  Anyone can find deeds, mortgages and liens, and report their volumes and pages, and recording dates.  That is the simple part.  But, understanding how those documents affect title is what makes the local examiner such a value to the industry.

I think it is a given that just as I would not be competent to abstract in any state other than Ohio, a searcher in India could not be competent to search multiple states.  It is conceivable that an Indian searcher could learn one or two states, and develop a sufficient level of competence.  Varun Sharma points out that this is exactly what they do in India (see comments).

There are different teams working on different states doing online title searches all at the same time and they are trained on state specific laws and nuances because they are experience in conducting searches in that particular State only.

Even then, it takes several months or even years of on-the-job training to really develop the necessary skills to become a competent, professional abstractor.  I would imagine it would require even more time for someone in another country, who is completely unfamiliar with our laws and culture, to grasp the concepts.  Based on a previous statement made by the head of an Indian outsourcing company, I have my doubts about the quality of training they receive.

Just when Mr Kanth was wondering about the next steps, he met the president of a title company based out of Baltimore in 2003-2004. He told Mr Kanth that there was a refinance boom in the US which resulted in a huge backlog in terms of production. Incidentally, his brother M Sujay Kanth, who is now the COO of ESS, happened to be in the US to explore business opportunities. They took up this opportunity. This was their first break. They met with the title official and looked at the process. “Initially, we had no clue of what was going on and it was very hard to grasp. We took it as a challenge and Sujay got trained in their office for about 40 days after which we started the transition to my India office from 2004,” the doc said.


Forty days of training is hardly suffient.  Regardless, to assume that searching titles from India is worse than using local abstractors, it must also be assumed that all local abstractors are well trained and educated in their state’s real property laws.  I believe that is a fallacy.  Basically, there is no difference between a search completed by an unqualified local abstractor and one completed by an unqualified Indian abstractor – except the latter is cheaper, of course. 

Before I continue, let me first acknowledge that there are still some very knowledgeable, local abstractors who provide very valuable services in this industry.  However, I believe that has become more the exception than the rule.  Many abstractors learned to abstract by trial and error, an online course, or from another searcher that doesn’t have the proper knowledge of abstracting.  I believe that this started with the “equity loan,” or “current owner,” searchers.  Once upon a time, they were used to provide very basic information for non-insured products.  Then, they slowly began to expand into “full searches” used for issuing title insurance.  I will never forget the first time I heard one of these searchers say “a full search is nothing more than a really good current owner with a chain of title.” 

Soon, the title industry began embracing current owner searches for title insurance purposes.  Current owners were much cheaper because these searchers, mostly out of ignorance, were taking shortcuts that a professional abstractor would never consider.  As the title industry began to lower the standards for its search requirements, the unskilled searchers flourished.  For better or worse, these over-simplified searches became the norm and everybody wanted them cheaper and faster.  The demand for skilled, professional abstractors dropped dramatically. 

Today the line between “searcher” and “abstractor” is blurred and the two terms have become interchangeable.  I wonder how many abstractors are really qualified to provide reliable title evidence. 

With the modern technological advance of electronic imaging, a title plant can be used to search titles from anywhere in the world.  If the local abstractors are really just finding documents and copying down pertinent information on a report, without a true understanding of the impact of those documents on the title, why not have that function done in India?  It is certainly cheaper… and since they can search around the clock, it is probably faster.

I do not agree with the practice of offshoring.  As Pat Scott said (see comments), “The title search is the foundation of the industry.  It is not a clerical task to be outsourced.” However, it would seem that the depth of knowledge of the local abstractors is not what it used to be.  If the industry were to suddenly stop offshoring and begin demanding quality abstracts, there would be a lot of local abstractors out of work, just the same.  The problem is that there is no way to know which ones are well qualified.  Because there are very few states with any sort of meaningful licensing, anyone can call themselves an abstractor. And, many who probably believe themselves to be professional abstractors just don’t know how much they don’t know.

My basic point is that the level of skill and knowledge between the average local abstractor and the Indian abstractor are probably not as far apart as you may think.  Title searching has been dumbed-down for so long that there are probably few left who care to educate themselves beyond what is necessary to copy recording information from filed documents.  There being little difference between the services provided here in the USA and overseas, it is not that hard to see why so many companies are offshoring title searches.  By failing to maintain a superior knowledge, the abstractors have probably made the offshoring decision much easier for those who chose to embrace it.  It basically turns on an issue of costs and profits.

Again, I am not saying that there aren’t still good, local abstractors out there.  I am merely pointing out that many of them have noticed that they are losing work to cheaper, untrained, incompetent competition; not just in India, but right there in there own counties.

Robert A. Franco

Thorny Issue In Deed

Monday, November 17, 2008


Times Herald Staff


NORRISTOWN — The “Uniform Municipal Deed Registration Act,” which takes effect on Dec. 8, basically pits the officials of 29 Pennsylvania townships and municipalities against the real estate title insurance industry, the lawyers who preside over residential “settlements” of sales and even county officials who are required to “record” a deed after the sale.  


This article demonstrates the ongoing battle between city, county and private sectors, all with the very best interests of the public, but each looking at issues from only their respective viewpoint. The same battle has been forged elsewhere, and undoubtedly will be again, but looking at the BIG picture, the documents must go of record immediately after closing, or lenders will not lend, and the lack of money available for sales will be a much bigger problem for the city than some  repairs. Read Times Herald full article by clicking here and post your thoughts.

Difficult Abstractor License Exam


In Minnesota, title companies and those doing land title searches generally take and pass a state licensing examination. Counties do not need to allow you into the public record without it. No license, the county can make you wait at the counter for assistance. Theory being that the records could be damaged, altered, mis-filed, etc. Well, the exam is not the proverbial “piece of cake.” Here is a typical question from an exam taker. I get these quite often.

Hi Jeanne

I have taken your abstracting and exam classes in the past and tried to pass the abstracting test a few months ago and FAILED twice. I am wondering if you have any suggestions for me???  (Name withheld)

Dear XXX, Good to hear from you.

Do you recall anything from the exam that was especially puzzling for you? 


I have heard from others that the questions use a lot of negative and kind of trick questions like “which of the following is the least likely…”, or “which one of the following is not…” For those, you need to be extra careful:  for example if they asked:

Which of the following is most likely to be deleted in a name search against Mary Charlotte Jones

    1. Marie C. Jones
    2. Mary Charlotte Jonas
    3. Marie Cathleen Jones
    4. Mary Jones

You need to try to decide what names you would NOT show if you found a judgment. So, the one that is most clearly different is c, because the middle name is clearly not the same, and although Mary and Marie are different, and Jones and Jonas are different, they pretty much sound the same. So best answer, the one that is most different, is c.

Another type of negative Q to look out for:

A quit claim deed is not used

    1. to give no claims as to the validity of title
    2. to give up any interest one may have in real estate
    3. to warrant title to property
    4. to convey title to real estate

You have to think through each answer:
a. Does a QCD give no claims as to the validity of title?  Yes
b. does a QCD give up any interestone may have in real estate Yes
c.does a QCD warrant title to property No
d.does a QCD convey title to real estate Yes.

It goes against how we think, but, because the Question says a QCD is NOT used to…, the answer is C.

Other questions may seem to be tricks, as they are hard to follow. For example

Which of the following is least likely to be shown in Joint Tenancy?

    1. A and B→ C and D
    2. E→ F and G
    3. G, H and I → J, K
    4. K→L, M→ N

Key to this question is how many people do you have to have for joint tenancy? Answer is at least 2, so only d. fits the bill because others are deeds to only single parties, so they can’t be JT’s. What comes to mind is that someone is always a T in C unless specified otherwise, and none of these say “as JT.”

Other suggestions are study up on the terminology, as they may split hairs, or substitute similar words – encroachment for encumbrance, etc.

If you have specific areas you do not understand, please let me know. Thanks,  Jeanne

P.S. XXX, I am going to post your Q on the blog without your name to see if we get any other responses… keep an eye out.

B.J. Ostergren knows more about you than you think

From the Source of Title Blog, used with their permission.

Maybe you’ve never heard of B.J. Ostergren, but she knows a lot about you. She knows where you live and how much you pay to live there. She has your driver’s license number, your signature, credit card and bank numbers and she has your Social Security number. Likely as not, she has the goods on your parents and children as well. She gathered it all from government websites.

The Virginia Watchdog wants the state to stop displaying your private data online but a new law in Virginia says government agencies have an exclusive right to display private data contained in public records online. Now Ostergren is taking her battle to federal court.

Ostergren has gleaned from online government records the Social Security numbers of many prominent people — Jeb Bush, Colin Powell, Porter Goss and Tom DeLay among them — and posted the documents on her own Web site to demonstrate government’s failure to protect individuals’ privacy.

“I’m not going after the little guy, I’m going after people of prominence that could have some power to do something about this,” Ostergren said.

Ostergren’s website, advocates against making personal information available on the Internet. The website includes public records obtained by Ostergren from government websites that include the Social Security Numbers of public officials. By posting these documents, Ostergren hopes to illustrate the type of information available on government websites, and to prod officials to take action.

Perhaps most offensive to Virginia officials are the links Ostergren posts on her site that document just how easy it is to find documents containing Social Security numbers and other private data belonging to Virginia’s own legislators, judges and county officials.

In March, Virginia legislators reacted to Ostergren’s website by amending a state law prohibiting anyone except government agencies from posting private data online. Under the previous law, individuals were prohibited from disclosing Social Security numbers obtained from private sources, but millions of public records containing Social Security numbers and other private information are available in Virginia on the state’s own websites.

Government websites have become a rich source of data needed by terrorists, identity thieves and stalkers.

Experts say terrorism and identity theft go hand in hand. The al-Qaida training manual US troops found on a laptop computer in Afghanistan includes provisions for trainees to leave camp with five fake personas, says Judith Collins, an identity theft expert, who uses a copy of the manual to train law enforcement officials. Terrorists are regularly schooled in the art of subsisting off credit card fraud while living in the United States, Collins says. The manual also instructs would-be terrorists on the easiest way to find the information they need.

According to former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, speaking on January 15, 2003, the al Qaeda training manual tells its readers, “Using public sources openly and without resorting to illegal means, it is possible to gather at least 80 percent of all information required about the enemy.”

The concept of document security by paid or free subscription to government websites has also proven deadly for at least two young women. Amy Boyer and Rebecca Schaeffer both lost their lives as a result of stalkers accessing their information through government websites. The 1989 murder of TV actress Rebecca Schaeffer resulted in the often-ignored National Driver Protection Act which makes it illegal for companies to buy driver records from state governments. Cases abound of government websites failing to protect constituents when publishing private data contained in public records online.

In an advisory dated August 8th, 2006, Ken Schrad, Director of Virginia’s Division of Information Resources announced that the State’s Bureau of Insurance Website published the Social Security numbers of every insurance agent licensed in the state. He advised the state’s 202,000 agents, many of whom sell identity theft insurance, to watch for any unusual activity on their bank or other financial accounts that might result from the massive breach.

Under the new law, Virginia citizens are prohibited from repeating the state’s mistakes by publishing copies of public documents containing Social Security numbers on private websites or Blogs. But the law allows Virginia’s “official” websites to continue trafficking in identities with almost complete abandon. Virtually anyone– anywhere in the world with an internet connection and twenty five dollars for a subscription to the county website may be granted remote online access to your Social Security number and other private data.

Earlier this month, the American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia filed a lawsuit on Ostergren’s behalf in federal court in Richmond. Ostergren is challenging the law that targets her website on grounds it violates the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech.. She has launched a federal lawsuit that questions who if anyone, has the right to distribute your private/public papers online for the entire world to see. At issue is who has the right to traffic in your identity.

When Virginia Governor Timothy M. Kaine signed the bill on March 11, he and others touted the bill as an effort to curb identity theft, suffered by an estimated 9 million Americans each year. But even the lawmaker behind the bill (Sen. R. Edward Houck) acknowledged that stopping people like Ostergren from publishing the Social Security numbers — not protecting Virginians from identity theft — was the true goal of the legislation.

Ostergren says her tactic of bringing bold and personal awareness to elected officials has worked in other states, such as Vermont, New York, New Mexico, California, Ohio and Florida, where she has fought to get personal information removed from online records. Only in her home state have lawmakers responded by unanimously passing legislation making Ostergren’s tactics illegal and punishable by a $2,500 civil penalty.

Ironically, the questioned statute takes effect on July 1, the same date by which circuit court clerks across the state are required to make all land records available on the Internet. Land records consist of deeds and mortgage documents, but may also include legal judgments, such as divorce decrees and probate, that often contain Social Security Numbers and other personal information. The ACLU is seeking an injunction prohibiting the state from enforcing the law against Ostergren.

“The ACLU is an advocate for laws that prevent the government from allowing Social Security Numbers to appear on publicly accessible websites,” said ACLU of Virginia Executive Director Kent Willis, “but when the government puts records online that do contain the numbers, it can’t then turn around and prevent the public from disseminating them.”

“Instead of the Virginia General Assembly dealing with the real problem of Social Security numbers being put on Web sites by circuit court clerks, they decided to target me because I posted theirs,” Ostergren told the Washington Examiner.

“This is a wrong-end-up law that attempts to conceal the fact that Virginia’s lawmakers have failed to prevent Social Security Numbers from being placed online in the first place,” added Willis. “If Social Security Numbers were removed from public records when they are placed online, there would be no need for this law.”

While Virginia already has a law requiring Social Security numbers to be redacted from documents posted on the Internet, the legislature failed to fund the privacy statute. Redaction efforts in other states have proven to be largely ineffective and extremely expensive.

The ACLU lobbied against the passage of Virginia’s new law prohibiting anyone except the government from posting Social Security numbers online and asked the Governor to veto it.

When she found out in 2002 that every locality in Virginia would begin posting personal information online, she started The Virginia Watchdog from her Hanover County home.

The lawsuit, which alleges that the law violates Ostergren’s First Amendment rights, points out that shutting down Ostergren’s website will do nothing to protect Social Security Numbers, since all of the documents on the site are also available on government websites. In the 1989 case The Florida Star v. B.J.F., the Supreme Court observed that “where the government has made certain information publicly available, it is highly anomalous to sanction persons other than the source [government websites] of its release.”

Today millions of people from all over the world routinely search and seize our most sensitive documents from government websites. The records can then be used by international criminals to take your property, homes – even your life. Surely this wasn’t what the framers of the constitution had in mind when they promised in the Fourth Amendment, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated…”

ACLU of Virginia Legal Director Rebecca K. Glenberg is providing legal representation to Ostergren. A copy of the ACLU’s complaint can be found online at

Interested parties can Contact Kent Willis or Rebecca Glenberg at 804/644-8022

Laws Change to Protect Consumer When Recording Deeds

A Philidelphia online Newspaper, RoxReview has a must read story about title theft and how they plan to combat the bad guys. Here is an excerpt about the ploy:

…thieves find houses that are vacant and obviously have not been looked after.

They use public records to learn when taxes and water bills have last been paid to make sure the properties’ owners have had little involvement or have not been paying any attention to them…
(then) a house thief simply gets some legal stationery, types up a deed and gets the property transfer notarized … He then presents that paperwork to the city’s Records Department, pays some fees and in a matter days becomes listed as the owner of record.

The article suggests title insurance as a protection from the problem, but it wants the government to do more. Learn what laws or regulations Philadelphia is considering to curb the growing problem.

Fraudulent Documents now Require County Recorder to Notify Grantors of a Sale

Thieves knowledgeable in searching the public record, and recording documents, secretly stole title to 25 vacant parcels by searching the land records, creating matching documents, forging signatures, and recording them. The fraud workers transferred properties worth more than $23 million from the rightful owners into names of “straw” buyers. One of the Counties involved says it received about 1,000 complaints about deed forgeries on properties in the last few years. Although the district attorney’s office in Riverside County, CA successfully prosecuted the forgery ring, the rightful landowners learned that it takes a lot of grief, money and time to undo a phony transaction once filed with the county recorder. Albert and Joy Rivera, scammed owners of the real estate with forged deeds filed to a straw buyer, said they feel lucky that they got their land back six months ago after 3 stressful years and paying out $20,000 in lawyer fees.

Among eight defendants who pleaded guilty in the fraud cases, the notary was sentenced to prison for 3 years, 4 months, while the real estate agent who helped to find vacant parcels, got 9 years, 4 months. The last defendant, thought to be the instigator, got 15 years 4 months in state prison as his sentence.

Los Angeles County, CA has obtained legislation to notify residents when deeds are recorded against their property. “I think we have a very successful program and it is a good model for other counties to implement,” said Mr. Herrera, director of the Los Angeles County Department of Consumer Affairs. The legislation allows charging a fee to fund the program.

Another remarkable story for WHY people should purchase a title policy. To see the more details of the story see FRAUD CASES

Does Title Industry Need More Government Oversight?

Yesterday, My Fox News in Minnesota, reported a MN Commerce Department raid, where officials found thousands of mortgage closings that were never completed at two additional title companies – Title Source Mortgage Company and Home Sweet Home Equity. The raid showed that “more than 3,000 homes nationwide” were affected. The Commerce Department revoked the license of the companies, whose owners allegedly spent some of the money for a suite at the Minnesota Vikings games, and $20,000 in political contributions.

I am not sure what all that means, but I would estimate that once again, the title insurance underwriter(s) will be up to their proverbial necks with trouble from owners, lenders and the secondary market, because:

• Thousands of homeowners have unfiled deeds. Of record, they have no title to their houses. They will be hard pressed to sell their homes, refinance, etc.
Unwarranted Foreclosures will be forced. Money collected to pay off mortgages was likely not sent to the appropriate lender, causing these houses to be forced into foreclosure, through no fault of the owners.
Unpaid monetary items on each closing will be a huge problem. Taxes, assessments, homeowner association dues, child support liens, mechanic’s liens, and other title issues, while collected at these closings, will remain unpaid on these homes until the title mess is cleaned up on each home. Penalties and interest accrue on many of these daily.
• Likely hundreds of lenders have unsecured mortgage loans on these 3,000 properties, because the mortgages have not been recorded at the respective county. These lenders will have loans unsalable on the secondary market, because no mortgage notes and collateral packages have been provided to the end lender. And, at a mere $260,000 per transaction, that would be about $780,000,000. worth of headaches on this one title agent.

I have long been outspoken in my concerns about the quality of title work, and signing of inept and unethical title agents, but hand in hand goes the similar responsibility about the quality and integrity of closing the transaction. Title Agents need to be both knowledgeable and ethical. Title agents handle Billions of dollars each year of the public’s money. The licensing and oversight of Title Agents is obviously not being appropriately handled by the five national title underwriters.

It seems to be time for state legislatures to step in. Why not fund State oversight of title companies by assessing significant enough penalties to really make them do the right thing. Title companies need oversight of funds, regular education and continuing education in laws and ethics, and they need a big stick to make it happen.

Title Insurance Industry Draws Down its Reserves

While the NY Times states “Unlike most American consumers, whose failure to save has exasperated economists for years, the typical American corporation has increased its savings so sharply that it probably has enough cash on hand to completely pay off its debts,” the U.S. Title Insurance Underwriters are moving in an opposite mode and are paying the price for being gluttons in order to obtain market share. While, historically, it has been rare for title insurers to incur net losses, 4 out of 5 publicly-traded national title underwriters that were examined in Fitch’s latest report, showed losses in 2007. The losses are due both to declining revenues, and unprecedented claims losses.

From a title consultant’s perspective, these poor results point to the fact that Underwriters have been signing up anyone who could fog a mirror if they promised to bring in business. There was little regard as to the proficiency of these agents in a highly-complex industry. This has been especially true when signing agents who could bring in business through an affiliated business arrangement – such as a lenders, mortgage brokers, builders or real estate agencies that could promise the related title business.
Real Estate Agents, Lenders and Mortgage Brokers own Title Companies
As the real estate sales and refinance market dropped in 2006-8, many Real Estate Agents and Mortgage Brokers that owned Title Insurance companies proved to be a poor risk. Skill levels were an issue. Ethics were an issue. Absconding of funds, not paying title premiums and leaving title underwriters holding the bag with a myriad of problems such as refinanced mortgages not being paid off, new mortgages and deeds being left unrecorded, etc. became daily news. Title Underwriters are still cleaning up after the mess.
Builders owning Title Companies
In other cases, builder title agents were particularly hazardous. As any knowledgeable title person knows, builder business is often high-risk business, because liens against new construction properties, in many states, give legal priority to sub-contractors and materialmen before they record any notice of their interest in the public record. This makes it impossible at the time of closing, to track who has a legal lien for material or labor, unless you take the word of the builder. (Builder… oh, yes, might that also be the title agent?) Also, in an effort to seize business, Title Underwriters devised a plan for the builders to keep a large portion of the premium dollar in exchange for “reinsuring” the property, i.e. transferring a portion of potential risk back to the builder. This cut into Underwriter dollars in order to buy the title business, ceding off a minor risk to the builder. In any case, the Feds, under RESPA, have determined the arrangement to be illegal (looking bad for the title underwriters.)

So, with poor quality of work, and clean-up from a number of bad title agents, statistics show that the Title Insurers are drawing down their reserves. As Gerald Glombicki, Director of Fitch’s Insurance Rating Group said “There is some concern that these reserve deficiencies coupled with operating losses will affect capital adequacy within the title industry.” A scary thought for the industry.

Title Insurance Abstracting Today – a Step Back in Time

A serious discussion needs to take place as to the future of the industry. But what about today? What do we do?

I was in a smaller population county in Nebraska yesterday (2-20-08). County seat, Wilber, population 287. I was in the Register of Deeds office. It was a welcome step back in time. There were no guards, or metal detection devices scanning me as I walked into the Courthouse. I was doing local research. I walked in, said I was a certifed abstractor and would like to look at some titles. The Assistant Co Recorder showed me into the record room. I asked if the books were grantor-ee or set up by Sec-Twp-Rge. They acknowledged the tract index books. I pulled the appropriate tract index, and within a few minutes had all of the documents that I was looking for on hundreds of acres and millions of dollars of property. The books are the traditional, individually typed index pages. Older pages were encased in plastic covers to protect them. Photocopies of original documents were well organized and maintained. They explained there was an off-site duplicate copy in case of disaster. Exactly what you would hope for from your local county recoder.

Then on to the Court Records. I looked up the Last Will and Testament and was able to determine 4 generations of owners with the same first and last names, but different middle initials. Great-grandfather, passed onto sons and grandsons, etc, all with variations of a name. Cleared up all those various different wives names in the chain of title. It was quite a trip.

This County has no real estate records online. This County has no real estate records even on computer. And abstracts, I was told, “hardly exist any more in this county. Title insurance has taken over. To do title work, the local abstract company has a part time employee who goes to various Courthouses to pull the documents.” The county employees were very knowledgeable and very helpful. They knew the family and a bit of the history. It was like going home, in a way. They even called ahead and told us the best place to eat lunch. The Wilber Hotel is a great place to eat.

Antique Parchment Deeds for Sale

Antique Parchment Deed

I still have a very limited number of Antique Parchment English Deeds (Indentures) for sale. The original Documents, all from the 1800’s, measure about 28 by 20 inches. They are beautiful hand-written penned calligraphy on heavy parchment and make striking one of a kind gifts for framing for home or office.

The term Indenture goes back many centuries, and comes from the crease made in large legal documents when they were folded to fit into Document Boxes, which held a families important papers.

The documents are only $100 per page. Please contact me at [email protected] for more information about specific documents. Happy Holidays!

Info On Home Closing

Home Closing 101: An Educational Initiative of the American Land Title Association